AI journalism: possibilities, limitations, and outcomes

Microsoft made waves this May when it announced that it would lay off more than 50 journalists and editors from its workforce. Many of these employees were involved in the news curation process, selecting hand-picked content that would run on the Microsoft News and MSN websites. But their positions won’t go unfilled for long: Microsoft is expected to replace them not with new hires, but with AI software that can identify trending and interesting articles, essentially performing their old job function.

But curation is just one task that AI “journalists” can now accomplish. Kristian Hammond, a computer science professor and co-founder of the data storytelling company Narrative Science, predicted in 2012 that in 15 years, more than 90 per cent of news articles would be written by a computer. With 7 years to go until the deadline, however, we’re still very far off from this forecast—yet also much closer than we used to be, as we’ll discuss below.

The good news for human journalists is that there’s still very much a need for their services when writing articles like this one. But with machines now capable of doing more tasks than ever (and more complex ones), we face several important questions: what’s the role of AI in journalism, and what are the challenges and considerations when bringing AI into the newsroom?

What’s the current state of AI journalism?

Machine-written articles

Starting in the past several years, AI journalists have been able to write “plug and play” articles that don’t require independent research. For example, below is the opening paragraph from an AI journalist’s article on a college basketball game, created by the natural language generation platform Wordsmith in 2015. There’s little indication that the piece wasn’t written by a human hand:

UNC beats Louisville 72-71 on late Paige basket

Led by a Paige game-winner, North Carolina defeats Louisville 72-71

CHAPEL HILL, N.C. — Marcus Paige scored with nine seconds remaining in the game to give North Carolina a 72-71 lead over Louisville. The Heels held on to win by that same score following a missed 3-pointer by Wayne Blackshear and an unsuccessful second-chance attempt by Terry Rozier.

For now, AI-written articles are limited to relatively simple and formulaic topics: stock market results, M&A announcements, sports game scores, etc. Bloomberg News, for example, uses an AI system called Cyborg that automatically scans companies’ quarterly reports and then outputs a quick article with the most relevant information.

Anything more complicated than this is out of reach for now—at least if journalists want to publish stories that won’t put them at risk of a defamation lawsuit. Language models such as GPT-3 have created a buzz for their ability to synthesise several paragraphs of highly realistic English text, but there’s no guarantee that the content they generate has any basis in reality.

Assisting human journalists

When AI isn’t writing articles itself, it can also help human reporters with work that’s too intricate for it to handle, such as long-form articles, in-depth analyses, and investigative journalism.

One tremendously valuable AI use case: automated transcription of interviews, which can save human journalists untold hours of grunt work. While the results of AI transcription are rarely flawless, the few errors that the software does commit can easily be corrected by a human editor.

For example, the automated speech-to-text service Trint was founded by former TV news reporter Jeff Kofman. Trint closed a $4.5 million funding round in April 2019 and counts the Associated Press and Google Digital News Innovation Fund among its investors. The transcriptions output by the Trint platform are automatically mapped to the source audio or video, allowing journalists to easily search for specific content. According to Kofman, the software can deliver accuracy rates of 95 to 99 per cent for relatively clean audio within just a few minutes. I used Trint a lot during my PhD and it saved me a lot of time.

AI technology can also identify interesting trends and developments that are worthy of investigation by human reporters. In 2018, Forbes rolled out a new AI-enabled content management system called “Bertie” that recommends possible article topics and headlines to contributors, based on their previous work. Thus far, the experiment seems to have been a success: according to Forbes, the number of loyal visitors (i.e. those who visit the Forbes website more than once a month) doubled in the months after Bertie’s rollout.

Curated content for users

Not only is AI affecting the news that gets written, but it is also controlling the articles that people see as well, as we’ve seen with Microsoft’s decision to use AI news curators.

It’s well-known that the Facebook news feed algorithm suggests (what it believes to be) the most relevant content to users, based on the pages they’ve liked and their previous interactions on the platform. Similarly, AI technology can keep track of the articles that subscribers visit on a news website, learning about their behaviour and preferences (e.g. how much time they spend reading each article).

The more a news outlet knows about its customers, the more relevant content it can display on the website or in a weekly newsletter, delivering a personalised experience that helps encourage user interaction and discourage attrition. According to a 2019 survey by the digital media company Digiday, 70 per cent of digital publishers say that they personalise content for visitors.

Some examples of content personalisation in journalism include:

  • The New York Times mobile app displays a prominent “For You” section on its homepage.
  • The Boston Globe uses a customer data platform to collect information on subscribers and has found that its readers respond 70 per cent more favourably to targeted messaging.
  • The Hearst Newspapers group has used Google Cloud Natural Language API to categorise its digital content, helping to segment users based on their reading preferences.

Data-driven business decisions

The business office of a news outlet can benefit just as much from AI as the reporters themselves. By collecting data and crunching the numbers, AI can help managers and executives make decisions about which type of content to produce, which subscribers and former subscribers to target, which marketing campaigns to run, how much to charge for ads and subscriptions, and more.

One intriguing use of AI for the business of journalism is the Wall Street Journal’s dynamic paywall, in which different users are shown different amounts of information based on the likelihood that they will purchase a subscription. For example, users who have searched for articles on the WSJ website are seen as more likely customers than users who have found the same articles through social media. As a result, these promising leads are able to see more content before they’re asked to subscribe.

The limitations of AI journalism

AI-enabled journalism has shown great promise thus far, but is there a hard limit to that promise? According to the November 2019 JournalismAI report, which surveyed 71 news organisations in 32 countries, there are still significant difficulties that news companies face in adopting AI. The top three challenges to bringing AI into the newsroom were:

  • Financial resources (27 per cent)
  • Lack of knowledge or skills (24 per cent)
  • Cultural resistance (24 per cent)

Beyond these institutional barriers, there’s also a good reason to question whether AI in journalism is really the game-changer that its advocates claim it will be. Columbia journalism professor Francesco Marconi estimates that in the future, only 8 to 12 per cent of reporters’ tasks will be replaceable by a machine.

The state of artificial intelligence for journalism helps illustrate the difference between strong and weak AI. Strong or “general” AI, a machine that approaches human-level intelligence across the board, is still decades away and may never be truly attainable. Weak AI, on the other hand, refers to machine intelligence that is highly skilled at a narrowly defined task or set of tasks.

Essentially, there’s very good reason to be sceptical that newsrooms will ever see a “robot reporter” that pounds the pavement like its human colleagues, conducting interviews and writing stories from scratch. But there’s also evidence all around us that AI has an important role to play in the field of journalism—creating article summaries, generating ideas and proposals, analysing data to find interesting stories—and that this role is increasing with every passing year.

The repercussions of AI journalism

Journalistic ethics is already a sensitive topic—and so is ethics in AI, which makes their combination especially contentious. After all, this is an era where “fake news” is a growing concern: only 41 per cent of Americans say they trust the media to be fair and accurate, and 46 per cent of Europeans say they trust their written press, which is exactly why we are developing Mavin so that everyone can instantly recognise which articles to trust.

There are two distinct concerns for how AI technology is applied in journalism: the use of AI to generate content, and the use of AI to curate and display content to the end-user. Both of these issues need to be handled with care.

In 2014, for example, Facebook revealed the results of a controversial experiment with users’ news feeds. People who were exposed to “positive emotional content” on Facebook more often made more positive posts of their own, while the inverse effect happened with people who saw more negative content.

Similarly, a news company that promotes articles based only on users’ interactions would likely find itself in a race to the bottom in terms of quality: spitting out clickbait articles and news that incurs strong emotions, including sadness and outrage.

To avoid this fate, news outlets need to maintain a steady human hand on the wheel, even as they cede more responsibilities to AI journalists and curators. Although machines can churn out hundreds of cut-and-paste stories per day, these articles still require human supervision and fact-checking before they go to print. Likewise, humans need to oversee and verify news curation algorithms to ensure that the results are consistently high-quality (and to curb the backlash that recommendation algorithms have received in recent years).

AI journalists have shown tremendous possibility in clearing away much of the field’s hard labour: collecting data, transcribing recordings, writing fewer interesting articles, etc. But when it comes to the work that truly makes a news organisation stand out—in-depth reporting and analysis, political commentary, opinion columns—it’s clear that humans will be an essential part of this equation well into the future.

 

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  66. The Way Problem Gambling Makes You

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  69. Gambling has long been a tabooed subject in many societies; in actuality,
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    the thrill and excitement that come along with gambling;
    therefore, the reason there are casinos all over the world.

    Gambling has even made its way into popular culture, with reality shows like”The Weakest Link” where
    people play slots.

    Quarantee (black and red ) is probably the most well
    known type of casino game, and probably the one with the maximum degree of interest among gamblers.
    It is often compared to a cross between poker and slots, since it
    requires the player to place bets based on the cards that come
    out of the quarante deck. Although the exact mechanics
    of how these bets are made is largely unknown, it is generally thought that a
    standard deck of 52 cards is used in each game. As well as the cards that come from this quarante deck, the
    player should also choose a hand of cards that will make up the
    winning combination. The most common types of bets are the win, place, show,
    and full house.

    There are basically two kinds of stakes in quarantine.
    The players may either bet on the complete quantity of the pot
    (or wager); or they can bet on the total amount of cards
    that come out of the quarante deck. If no cards come out through
    a quarante game, then the player must call, raise, or fold.
    There are generally three different betting bets in each game:
    win, cover, and half-pay.

    Traditionally, the traditional Italian card game, tarantella,
    was played at the St Regis Hotel. This particular version of the game involved a tableau de quarante at
    which all of the players would sit at particular places on the warranty row.
    In this type of game, there were red and black rooms,
    with the winning player being the player who was able to complete their last five cards before
    the other players finished theirs.

    Today, there are literally hundreds of variations of
    this traditional French card game, et noir. In fact, the most
    common variation is only a variation on the black and red rooms.
    In most versions, there are four suites; a black package,
    a reddish suite, and a blue package. The players
    can win by laying down a total of twenty-one free cards, including one
    card from each of the four suites. Once all players have lost their cards, the dealer randomly selects one card
    from each of the four suites and puts it in the middle of the quarante table.

    These days, the term”quarante” means”of or relating to quarantining.” Traditionally, the game was known as”trente et noir” that
    meant playing cards with titles. It has also been referred to as”trente” and”ne monetaire” from the French speaking world.

    Today, it refers only to card games which contain playing cards with names.

    Traditionally, the game was played between two people seated across a small tablenonetheless, in America it
    is usually played in a bar or lounge. Each individual dealt three cards face down, one at
    a time to each other. If anybody got rid of one of
    those three cards, they had to switch places with the person who they
    had dealt the first card to. The person who dealt the last
    card, in turn, then had to eliminate the hand by passing another
    card to the person they handed it to.

    The”quaint” version of this game is available for people who want to
    play something a bit more simple. Though there
    are variations on the best way to play the game, the basic rules remain the same.
    The object stays the same, to form the greatest possible hand without having
    any cards left to spare. This can be achieved with ease, especially if you have already mastered the
    fundamentals of playing the game of blackjack, since the fundamental
    rules of the card game are extremely easy to learn and master.
    The basic concept of the game of”monte carlo” remains the same, as
    it is a simple game that may be played by almost anyone.

  70. Hey there! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any problems with hackers?

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  71. Gambling has long been a tabooed subject in many societies; in fact, many people believe it to be a
    form of gambling. However, many individuals still enjoy the thrill and excitement that
    come together with gambling; therefore, the reason why there
    are casinos all over the world. Betting has even made its way into popular culture, with reality shows like”The Weakest Link” where
    people play slots.

    Quarantee (red and black) is probably the most recognized
    type of casino game, and probably the one with the highest level of interest among gamblers.

    It’s often compared to a cross between poker and slots, because it requires the participant to place bets
    based on the cards that come out of the quarante deck.
    Even though the exact mechanics of how these bets are made is largely unknown, it’s generally thought that a normal deck
    of 52 cards is used in every game. In addition to the cards that come out of this quarante deck, the
    player must also opt for a hand of cards that will make up the winning combination. The most common types of bets are the win,
    place, show, and complete house.

    There are basically two types of bets in quarantine. The players
    can either bet on the complete amount of the pot (or wager); or they could bet
    on the total number of cards that come from the quarante deck.

    If no cards come out during a quarante match, then the player must call, raise, or fold.
    There are generally three different betting bets in each sport: win, cover,
    and half-pay.

    Traditionally, the traditional Italian card game, tarantella,
    was played at the St Regis Hotel. This particular
    variant of the game involved a tableau de quarante at which all the players would sit at specific places on the guarantee row.
    In this sort of game, there were red and black rooms, with the winning participant being the player that was able to
    finish their last five cards before the other players ended theirs.

    Today, there are literally hundreds of variations of the traditional French card game,
    et noir. In fact, the most common variation is
    simply a variation on the black and red rooms. In most versions, there are four suites; a black suite, a
    reddish suite, plus a blue suite. The players can win by laying down a total of twenty-one free cards, including one card from each of the four suites.
    Once all players have discarded their cards,
    the dealer randomly selects a single card from each of the four suites and
    puts it in the center of the quarante table.

    Today, the term”quarante” means”of or relating to quarantining.” Traditionally, the
    game was known as”trente et noir” that meant playing cards with
    titles. It has also been referred to as”trente” and”ne monetaire” from the French speaking world.
    Today, it refers only to card games which contain playing cards with names.

    Traditionally, the match was played between two people seated across a tablenonetheless, in America it’s usually played at
    a bar or lounge. Each individual dealt three cards face down, one at a
    time to each other. If anybody got rid of one of those three cards, they had to switch places with the person who they had dealt the first card to.
    The man who dealt the last card, in turn, then had to
    eliminate the hand by passing another card to the person they
    passed it to.

    The”quaint” version of this game is available for people
    who wish to play something a bit more simple.

    Though there are variations on how best to play the game, the basic rules remain the same.
    The object is still the same, to form the highest possible
    hand without needing any cards left to spare. This can be accomplished with ease, especially if
    you’ve already mastered the basics of playing the game of blackjack, because the fundamental rules of this card game are
    very simple to learn and master. The basic notion of the game of”monte carlo” remains the
    same, as it is a simple game which can be played
    by almost anyone.

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